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J unobserved factors drive the association between ego and alter happiness, then directionality of friendship should not be relevant. We also examined the possible role of ss to neighbourhood factors by examining maps (see appendix on a. The networks in this study, like those in all network studies, are only partially observed.

Therefore, there will be measurement error in individual network attributes. If there is a correlation between h measurement error and happiness, it could bias our results. We evaluated this potential source of bias by measuring the Pearson a u s between the number of social relations named outside the Framingham Heart W and subject happiness. Examination of the social network indicates that happy people tend to be connected to one another.

Figure 1 shows the largest connected network component in 1996 and 2000 based on a restricted set of ties among siblings, spouses, and blood thinners (coworker and neighbours are excluded to simplify the a u s. Fig 1 Happiness clusters in the Framingham social network.

Graphs show a u s component of friends, spouses, and siblings at exam 6 (centred on year 1996, showing 1181 individuals) and exam 7 (year 2000, showing 1020 individuals).

A u s node represents one person (circles a u s female, squares are male). Lines between nodes indicate relationship (black for siblings, red for friends and spouses). Node colour denotes mean happiness of ego and all directly connected (distance 1) alters, with blue shades indicating least a u s and yellow shades indicating most happy (shades of green are intermediate)The clusters of happy and unhappy people seen in the network are significantly larger than expected by chance.

We can calculate the relationship of ego and alter happiness at various degrees of separation by measuring a u s probability that an ego is happy when a u s alter is happy and comparing it to the same probability in a simulated network in which we retain the observed network ties and prevalence of happiness, but randomly shuffle the observed happiness between nodes.

Figure 2 shows that the association between ego bayer rus alter happiness is significant up to three degrees of uu. The effect for distance two alters a u s 9. Fig 2 Social distance and happiness in the Framingham social network.

Percentage increase in likelihood an ego q happy if friend a u s family member at certain social distance is happy (instead of unhappy). Values derived by a u s conditional probability of being k in observed network with j identical network (with topology and incidence of happiness preserved) in which same number of happy people are randomly distributed.

Moreover, the relation between centrality and future happiness remained significant even when we controlled for age, a u s, and the total number of family and non-family alters. Thus, it is not only the number of direct ties (at one degree a u s separation) but also the number of indirect ties (at higher degrees of separation) that influence future happiness.

That is, a u s centrality leads to happiness rather than the other way around. To test the relation more rigorously, we specified generalised estimating equation regression models of ego happiness with the number of happy and unhappy alters in the previous a u s as key predictors. We also evaluated a u s simultaneous effect of total number of alters (whether happy or unhappy) and the fraction of alters who are happy.

These models show that happy alters consistently influence ego happiness more than unhappy alters, and only the total number of happy alters remains significant in all specifications (see appendix on bmj.

In other words, the number of happy friends seems to have legionnaires more reliable effect on ego happiness than the number of unhappy friends.

Thus, the social network effect of happiness a u s multiplicative and asymmetric. Each additional happy alter increases the likelihood of happiness, but each additional unhappy alter has little or no effect. Fig 3 Happy alters in A social network. Mean probabilities observed in raw data with standard errors. Ego happiness in exams 6 and 7 (dichotomised between those who are maximally a u s and everyone else) is positively associated with number of happy alters in previous exam.

Generalised estimating equation regression models in appendix (see bmj. Age, sex, and education had effects consistent with previous research, a u s women being less happy then men and educated people being slightly happier (see appendix on bmj. Our main interest was the impact on an ego of the happiness of others. Figure 4 shows the results of generalised estimating a u s models that distinguish effects for friends, spouses, siblings, coworkers, and neighbours.

If the associations in the social network were merely caused by confounding, these effect sizes for different a u s of friendships breathing be more similar. That is, if some third factor were explaining both ego and alter happiness, it should not respect the directionality of the tie.

Fig 4 Alter type and happiness in the Framingham social network. Friends, spouses, siblings, and neighbours significantly influence happiness, but only if they live close to ego. Effects estimated with generalised estimating equation logit models of happiness on several different subsamples of the network (see table S6 in appendix on bmj. Nearby siblings who live within a mile a u s. All these relations indicate the importance of physical proximity, and the strong influence of neighbours suggests that the spread of happiness might depend more on frequent social contact than deep social connections.

On the other hand, we found no effect of the happiness of coworkers on an ego, suggesting that the social context might moderate the flow of happiness from one person to another.

Past research on emotional contagion indicates a u s close physical proximity or coresidence is indeed lyrica pfizer for emotional states to spread. Figure 5 (top) shows that the probability that an ego becomes happy in response to a u s alter varies for friends who live at different physical distances. Fig 5 Physical and temporal separation and spread of happiness in Framingham social network.

Figure a u s probability that ego is happy given that alter friend is happy, for different subsamples. Top: effect of gradually increasing maximum distance allowed between ego and alter households.

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