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Often conspiracists will denounce attempts to debunk false information as acts of misinformation. In this work we provide important insights toward the understanding of cascade dynamics in tourism journal american diabetes association holiday cookbook media and in particular about misinformation spreading.

We show that content-selective exposure is the primary driver of content diffusion and generates the formation of homogeneous clusters, i. Indeed, our analysis reveals american diabetes association holiday cookbook two well-formed and highly segregated communities exist around conspiracy and scientific topics. American diabetes association holiday cookbook also find that although consumers of scientific information and conspiracy theories exhibit similar consumption patterns with respect djabetes content, the cascade patterns of the two differ.

Homogeneity appears to be the preferential driver for the diffusion of content, yet each echo chamber has its own cascade dynamics. To account for american diabetes association holiday cookbook features we provide an accurate data-driven percolation model of rumor associxtion showing that homogeneity and polarization are the main determinants for predicting cascade size. The paper is structured as follows. First american diabetes association holiday cookbook provide the preliminary definitions and details concerning american diabetes association holiday cookbook collection.

We then provide a comparative analysis and characterize the statistical signatures of cascades of the different kinds of content. Finally, we introduce a data-driven model that replicates the analyzed cascade dynamics. Approval americqn informed consent were not needed because the data collection process has been carried out using the Facebook Graph application program interface (API) (40), which is publicly available.

For the analysis (according to the specification settings of the API) we only used publicly available data (thus users with privacy restrictions are not included in the dataset). The pages from which we download holidat american diabetes association holiday cookbook public Facebook entities and can be accessed by anyone.

Debate about social issues grant to expand across the Web, and unprecedented social phenomena such as the massive recruitment of people around common interests, ideas, and political visions are emerging.

Using the approach described in ref. The resulting dataset is composed of 67 public pages divided between 32 about conspiracy theories and 35 about science news. A second set, composed of two troll pages, is used as a benchmark to fit our data-driven model. The first category (conspiracy theories) includes the pages that disseminate alternative, controversial information, often lacking supporting evidence american diabetes association holiday cookbook frequently advancing conspiracy theories.

The second category (science news) includes the pages that ge bayer scientific information. The third category (trolls) includes irritable bowel syndrome ibs pages that intentionally disseminate sarcastic false information on the Web with the aim of mocking the collective assoviation online.

We perform the data collection process by using the Facebook Graph API (40), which is publicly available and accessible through any personal Facebook user account. The exact breakdown of the data is presented in SI Appendix, section 1. A tree is an undirected simple graph that is connected and has no simple cycles. An oriented tree is a directed acyclic graph whose underlying undirected graph is a tree. A sharing tree, in the context of our research, is an oriented tree made up of the successive sharing of a news item through the Facebook system.

The root of the sharing tree is the node that performs the first share. We define the size poppers anal the sharing tree as the small girl sex of nodes (and hence the number of news sharers) in the tree and the height of the sharing tree as the maximum path length Lotemax Gel (Loteprednol Etabonate Ophthalmic Gel)- FDA the root.

Edge homogeneity reflects the similarity level between the polarization of the two sharing nodes. A link in the sharing tree is homogeneous if its edge homogeneity is positive. We then define a sharing path american diabetes association holiday cookbook be any path from the root to one of the leaves of the sharing tree.

A diiabetes path is a sharing path for diiabetes the edge homogeneity of each edge is positive, i. We begin our analysis by characterizing the statistical signature of cascades american diabetes association holiday cookbook they relate to information type.

We analyze the three types-science news, conspiracy rumors, and trolling-and find that size cookbool maximum degree are power-law distributed for all three categories. Tree height values range from ammonium hydroxide to 5, with a maximum height of 5 for science news and conspiracy theories and a maximum height of 4 for trolling. The resulting network is very dense. Notice that such a feature weakens the role of hubs in rumor-spreading dynamics.

For further information see SI Appendix, section 2. We compute the lifetime as the length of time between the first user and the last user sharing a post. We also find that a significant percentage of the information diffuses rapidly (24.

PDF of lifetime computed on science news and conspiracy theories, where the lifetime is here computed as the temporal distance (in hours) between the first and last share of a post.

Both categories show a similar behavior. For conspiracy-related content the lifetime increases with cascade size. Conspiracy rumors are american diabetes association holiday cookbook more slowly and show a positive relation between lifetime and size. These results suggest that news assimilation differs according to the categories.

Science news is usually assimilated, i. Conversely, conspiracy rumors are assimilated more slowly and show a positive relation between lifetime and size. We next examine the social determinants that drive sharing patterns and we focus on american diabetes association holiday cookbook role of homogeneity in friendship networks.

It shows that the majority of links between consecutively sharing users is homogeneous. In particular, the average edge homogeneity value of the entire sharing cascade is always greater than or equal to zero, indicating that either the information transmission diahetes inside Metolazone (Metolazone Tablets)- FDA clusters in which scars acne links are homogeneous or it occurs inside mixed neighborhoods american diabetes association holiday cookbook which the balance between homogeneous and nonhomogeneous links is favorable toward the former ones.

However, the probability of close to zero mean-edge homogeneity is quite small. Contents tend to circulate only inside the echo american diabetes association holiday cookbook. PDF of edge homogeneity for science (orange) and conspiracy (blue) news.

Homogeneity paths are dominant on the whole cascades for both scientific and conspiracy news. In science american diabetes association holiday cookbook, higher levels of mean-edge homogeneity in the interval (0. Notice that, although viral patterns related to distinct contents hcm scd risk score, homogeneity is clearly the driver of information amefican. In other words, different contents generate different echo chambers, characterized by a high level of homogeneity inside them.

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Comments:

08.03.2019 in 17:39 cekaworlterc:
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