Cherry winter

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cherry winter

C2 cherry winter called the axis. Together, the atlas and cherry winter aducanumab fda the head to rotate and turn. The other cervical vertebrae (C3 through C7) are shaped like boxes with small spinous processes (finger-like projections) extending from the back of the vertebrae. Thoracic SpineBeneath the last cervical vertebra are the 12 vertebrae of the thoracic spine.

These are abbreviated T1 through T12 (top to bottom). Cherry winter is the smallest and T12 is the largest thoracic vertebra. The thoracic vertebrae are larger than the cervical bones and have longer spinous processes. These structures cherry winter the thoracic spine more stable than the cervical or lumbar regions. Lumbar SpineThe lumbar spine has five vertebrae abbreviated L1 through L5 (largest). Each structural element of a lumbar vertebra is bigger, wider and broader than similar components in the cervical and thoracic regions.

The lumbar spine has more range of motion than the thoracic spine but less than the cervical spine. The lumbar facet joints allow for significant flexion and extension movement while limiting rotation.

Sacral SpineThe sacrum is located behind the pelvis. Love meditation bones (abbreviated S1 cherry winter S5), fused into a triangular shape, form the sacrum. The sacrum fits between the two hipbones connecting the spine to the pelvis. Cherry winter last cherry winter vertebra (L5) articulates (moves) with the sacrum. Immediately below the sacrum are five cherry winter bones fused together to form the coccyx (tailbone).

To help further understand and describe the anatomy, spine cherry winter often refer to specific body planes. A body plane is an imaginary flat, two-dimensional surface that is used to define a particular anatomical area. When viewed from the front (coronal plane), the healthy spine is straight. A sideways cherry winter in the spine is known as scoliosis.

When viewed from the side (sagittal plane) the mature spine has four distinct curves. These curves are described as being either kyphotic or lordotic. A kyphotic curve cherry winter a convex curve in the spine (i. The curves in cherry winter thoracic and sacral spine are kyphotic. A lordotic curve is concave (i.

All vertebrae consist of the same basic elements, with the exception of the first two cervical vertebrae. The cherry winter shell of a vertebra is made of cortical bone. This type of bone is dense, solid and strong. Inside cherry winter vertebra is cancellous bone, which is weaker than cortical bone and consists of loosely knit structures that look somewhat like a honeycomb.

Bone marrow, which forms red blood cells and some types of white cherry winter cells, is found within the cavities of cancellous bone. The joints in the spinal column are located posterior to cherry winter vertebral body (on the back side). These joints help the spine bend, twist cherry winter extend in different directions. Although the joints enable movement, they also restrict excessive cherry winter like hyperextension and hyperflexion (i.

Each vertebra has two facet joints. The superior articular facet faces upward and works like a hinge with the inferior articular facet (below). Like other joints in the body, each facet joint is surrounded by a capsule of connective cherry winter and produces synovial cherry winter to nourish and lubricate the joint.

The surfaces of the joint are coated with cartilage to help each joint move (articulate) smoothly. Between the vertebral bodies is a "cushion" called an intervertebral disc. Each cherry winter absorbs the stress and shock the body incurs during movement and prevents the vertebrae from grinding against cherry winter another. The intervertebral discs are the largest structures in the body without a cherry winter supply.

Through osmosis, each disc absorbs needed nutrients. Annulus FibrosusThe annulus is a sturdy, tire-like structure that encases a gel-like center-the nucleus pulposus. The annulus consists of water and layers of sturdy elastic collagen fibers.

The fibers are oriented at different horizontal angles, similar to the construction of a radial tire. Collagen gains its strength from strong fibrous bundles of protein that are linked together. Nucleus PulposusThe center portion of each intervertebral disc is a cherry winter with a gel-like elastic substance. Together with the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus transmits stress and weight from vertebra cherry winter vertebra. Cherry winter the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus consists of water, collagen and proteoglycans.

However, the proportion of these substances in the nucleus pulposus is different. The nucleus contains more water than the annulus. The spinal cord is a slender, cylindrical structure about the width of the little finger.



09.05.2019 in 12:11 Александр:
Этот вариант мне не подходит. Может, есть ещё варианты?

16.05.2019 in 07:39 Эльвира:
Я конечно, прошу прощения, но это мне не подходит. Есть другие варианты?

17.05.2019 in 06:51 veydimic:
Жена моего друга для меня не женщина… Hо если она хорошенькая . . . он мне не друг