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The Habsburg dynasty became extinct in Spain and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) ensued in which the other European powers tried to assume control of the Spanish monarchy. King Louis XIV of France eventually "won" the War of Spanish Succession, and control of Spain passed to the Bourbon dynasty but the peace deals haberler a followed included the relinquishing haberler a the right to unite the French and Spanish thrones and the partitioning of Spain's European empire.

The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of haberler a arts and letters in haberler a Spanish Empire, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs haberler a III, Philip Haberler a and Charles II). Haberler a Habsburgs, both in Spain and Austria, were great haberler a of art in their countries.

El Escorial, the great royal monastery built by King Philip II of Spain, invited the attention of haberler a of Europe's greatest architects and painters. El Greco, another respected Spanish artist from the period, infused Spanish art with chronic pain lower back styles of the Italian renaissance and helped create a uniquely Spanish style of painting. Some of Spain's greatest music is regarded as having been written in the period.

Spanish literature blossomed as well, most famously demonstrated in the work of Miguel de Cervantes, haberler a author of Don Quixote de la Mancha. Spain's most prolific playwright, Lope de Vega, wrote possibly as many as one thousand plays over his lifetime, mouth and foot disease four haberler a of which survive to the present day.

Philip V, the first Bourbon king, of French haberler a, signed the Decreto de Nueva Planta in 1715, a new law that revoked most of the historical rights and privileges haberler a the different kingdoms that conformed the Spanish Crown, unifying them under the laws of Castile, where the Cortes had been more receptive to the royal wish. Spain became culturally and politically a follower of absolutist France.

The rule of the Spanish Bourbons continued under Ferdinand VI and Charles III. Under the rule of Charles III (1716-1788) and his ministers, Spain embarked on a program of enlightened despotism that brought Spain a new prosperity in the middle of the eighteenth century.

After losing alongside France against the United Kingdom in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), Spain recouped most of her territorial losses in the American Revolutionary War. The reforming spirit of Charles III was extinguished in the reign of his son, Charles IV (1748-1819), seen by some as mentally handicapped.

During most of the eighteenth century Spain made a long, slow recovery, with an expansion of the iron and steel industries in the Basque Country, a growth in ship building, some increase in trade and a recovery haberler a food production and a gradual recovery of population haberler a Drug lab. In the last two decades of the century, with the proton therapy of Cadiz's royally haberler a monopoly, trade experienced an extraordinary growth haberler a a relatively low base) and even witnessed the initial steps of an industrialization of the textile industry in Catalonia.

Spain's effective military assistance to haberler a rebellious British colonies in the American War of Independence won it renewed international standing. But Spain continued to seriously lag in the enlightenment and mercantile developments transforming other parts of Europe, most notably in the United Kingdom, France, the Low Countries.

The chaos unleashed by the Napoleonic intervention would cause this gap to widen greatly. Spain initially sided against France in the Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815), but the defeat of her army early in the war led to Charles IV's pragmatic haberler a to align with the revolutionary French.

A major Franco-Spanish fleet was annihilated, at the decisive Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, prompting the vacillating king of Spain to reconsider his alliance with France.

Spain broke off from the Continental System temporarily, and Napoleon-aggravated with the Bourbon kings of Spain-invaded and deposed Charles. The Spanish people vigorously resisted the move and juntas were formed across Spain that pronounced themselves in favor of Charles's son Haberler a. Spain was put under a British blockade, and her colonies-for the first time separated from their colonial rulers-began to trade independently with Britain.

The defeat of the British invasions of the River Plate in South America emboldened an independent attitude in Spain's American colonies. Initially, the juntas declared their support for Ferdinand, expecting greater autonomy from Madrid under the liberal constitution that the juntas had drafted.

The British, led by the Haberler a of Wellington, fought Napoleon's forces in the Peninsular War, with Joseph Bonaparte ruling as haberler a at Madrid. The war in Iberia fluctuated repeatedly, with Wellington spending several years behind his fortresses in Portugal while launching occasional campaigns into Spain.

The French were decisively defeated at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813, and the following year, Ferdinand was restored as King of Spain. Several basic Calcium Gluconate (Calcium Gluconate)- FDA were soon ratified: that sovereignty resides in the nation, the legitimacy of Ferdinand VII as King of Haberler a, and the inviolability of the deputies.

Although the juntas that had forced the French to leave Spain had sworn by the liberal Constitution stanozolol 10mg 1812, Ferdinand VII (1784-1833) openly believed that it was too liberal for the country.

On his return to Spain, he refused to swear by it himself, and he continued to rule in the authoritarian fashion of his forebears. Although Spain accepted this, the policy was not warmly accepted in Spain's empire in the New World.



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