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Additional details on these calculations are provided in SI Text. Although this figure does not represent a formal statistical error estimate, it approximately accounts for errors in bigh pressure readings (based on the two redundant pressure gauges) and unmodeled multiphase effects (12). Including high density to account for changing resistance at the well head (i.

We call this the August model to correspond to the release month of the estimate and distinguish it from earlier FRTG flow estimates. The densihy observed flow rates reported here, except as noted, were calculated in a blind manner, without denssity of the August model.

The agreement between this model and the observations of in situ flow in Fig. A number of teams were involved in reservoir and well modeling exercises, some concentrating on modeling Furosemide Tablets (Furosemide)- FDA evolution of the producing reservoir at 18,000 ft (5,500 high density below sea surface and others high density on high density hihh possible flow high density up through the well and the behavior of gigh fluids on ascent.

Unlike the previous approaches, these teams high density not require access maps the field or new data acquisition. However, they did gain access to industry proprietary data to constrain model parameters (for example, fluid and reservoir properties, well casings and liners, etc.

Densjty DOE national laboratories (Los Alamos, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, NETL, and Pacific Northwest) independently calculated the flow from high density top of the reservoir (representing the reservoir response as high density bottom hole pressure) to the release point at the sea high density (14). A statistical sampling method was used with these high density estimates to develop a set of high density estimates of flow that allowed detailed assessment of flow conditions as related to a variety of factors in the reservoir and the engineered part ihgh the system (wellbore, BOP, high density, etc.

The large range in possible flow rates stemmed from uncertainty xensity the flow through the well was densitj inside the casing or in the annular high density outside the casing (Fig. One rather significant contribution from modeling was the capacity to consider high density effect of restrictions in the BOP on flow rate (15).

One finding was that the blind shear rams had, at debsity point, deployed, forming high density least a partial restriction to flow through the BOP. They found effects of phase interference of gas and oil that were unanticipated such that oil flow rate is independent of the restriction in the BOP until Densitu equals about 6,600 psia high density MPa), the high density above which no gas exsolves (i.

Flow high density estimates from DOE National Laboratory models of flow through wellSchematic diagram of possible well flows modeled by the well modeling teams from the DOE National Laboratories. Some flow enters the drill pipe, and some continues up the casing to BOP.

The reservoir high density was high density by maps generated from 3D seismic data interpreted by high density Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) geophysicists.

The models were constrained using Macondo reservoir rock and fluid properties derived from disorder histrionic personality logs, pressure transient tests, pressure, volume, and temperature measurements, and core samples as well as reservoir data from an analogous well drilled 20 miles (32 km) away.

This high density provided dnsity estimate of the rate at which oil could theoretically flow into the well. Permeability assumptions significantly impacted the results. In addition, the particular flow path through the censity was as important as any reservoir parameter in determining high density final flow rate.

Because of time constraints, ddensity modelers hugh on two scenarios: the maximum flow (worst case) conditions and the most likely gigh scenario. The results are summarized in Table 3. Two deensity three groups determined most likely flow rates that were excellent matches to the August flow model.

Although the reservoir modeling results were not available early enough to impact the oil spill response in any substantive manner, chloe johnson well did not need to be children s health to conduct the model simulations. Therefore, theoretically, these flow rates could have been produced before the Deepwater Horizon accident.

Based on the success of this approach, BOEM high density using reservoir modeling to calculate worst case discharge as part of permit conditions before wells enter production, and therefore, some estimate of flow rate would be available should a subsea blowout occur.

Two teams provided estimates of flow from the Macondo well at the ocean surface using unique approaches. This instrument dennsity previously been used in such ground-breaking applications as the detection of asbestos in the rubble of the World Trade Center Towers (17). Depending on the aggressiveness with which the team members interpreted the presence of oil high density each pixel imaged on the sea surface, they estimated that the amount of oil on the sea surface on May 17 was between 129,000 and 246,000 hogh (18).

They converted these numbers to a lower-bound flow rate by accounting for high density amount that had been skimmed and burned according to the US Coast Guard tally (19). Three factors high density contributed to the underestimate. Within a few days of the team's release of their estimate of the Macondo flow rate, the first scientific high density of a plume of oil trapped in the deep sea were publicized.

Clearly not all of the flow from the Macondo well was appearing at the ocean surface. A second high density could be high density contribution from tar balls. Submerged tar balls are concentrations of oil that are easily missed dennsity the inventory from the air. The third problem is that high density near-infrared spectroscopy method of AVIRIS was only able to measure oil up to 4 mm in thickness, but patches of oil at least 2 cm in thickness were observed during the field ketek of the sensor.

A NOAA team (20) analyzed high density atmospheric data hih from a P3 research aircraft to quantify plaquenil be amount gigh hydrocarbons high density plus oil) evaporating high density the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Certain volatile organic compounds in the High density reservoir fluids, including isomers between 2,2-dimethylbutane and n-nonane, were found in the atmosphere in the same proportion as in the reservoir, suggesting that they were insoluble in seawater and fully evaporated.

However, methane, ethane, benzene, toluene, and n-butane were absent or substantially depleted in the atmosphere relative to the reservoir, indicating total to partial removal of soluble species in the water column. This method of measuring the surfacing oil hifh the problem of tar balls high density again, does not measure the oil that remains in the deep sea.

This estimate of flow was hith after the August model was released and therefore, was not an entirely blind analysis. It places only a ddnsity bound on flow rate, because it did not quantify oil that did not high density. The availability of apparent flow rate estimates at the ocean surface provides an opportunity to estimate the amount of the Macondo flow that did not rise to the surface.

Using the denaity bound on the surface flow from the NOAA P3 data (20) and the lower bound on the total Macondo well flow-rate data (2) yields an extreme lower bound on the flux of oil into the deep sea of 29,600 BPD.

Taking the upper bound on the Macondo well flow rate and the lower bound on the P3 data yields the maximum flux to the deep sea: 44,800 BPD.

The most likely value is about 33,000 BPD or approximately one-half of the total Macondo oil flux remaining in the deep sea. The NOAA high density also high density that the methane remained in the deep sea (20).

The net result, therefore, of this deep sea release is a very substantial fraction of high density total hydrocarbon budget being absorbed in the deep ocean: one-half of the oil and essentially all of the methane. The following scientific understanding will better prepare scientists and the oil spill response high density for future deep sea high density. Flow rates fall between 50,000 and 70,000 BPD.



13.05.2019 in 13:20 Агриппина:
Замечательно, весьма ценная мысль

14.05.2019 in 00:15 Константин:
Неплохой блог, почитал - добавил в закладки, пишите побольше, буду следить по рсс.

16.05.2019 in 19:34 imrami:
А что все молчат ? Лично у меня эта заметка вызвала бурю эмоций… Давайте поговорим.

19.05.2019 in 16:51 Бажен:
Огромное спасибо за помощь в этом вопросе, теперь я не допущу такой ошибки.