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The first category (conspiracy theories) includes the pages that disseminate alternative, controversial information, often lacking supporting evidence and infp personality character advancing conspiracy theories.

The second category (science news) includes the pages that disseminate scientific information. The third category (trolls) includes those pages that intentionally disseminate infp personality character false information on the Web with the aim of mocking the collective credulity online. We perform the data collection process by using the Infp personality character Graph API (40), which is publicly available and accessible through any personal Facebook user account.

The exact breakdown of the data is presented in SI Appendix, section 1. A tree is an undirected simple infp personality character that is connected and has no simple cycles. An oriented tree is a directed acyclic graph whose urinary incontinence medication undirected graph is a tree.

A sharing tree, in the context of our research, is an oriented tree made up of the successive sharing of a news item through the Facebook system. The root of the sharing tree is the node that performs the first share.

We define the size of the sharing tree as the number of nodes (and hence the number of news sharers) in the tree infp personality character the height of the sharing tree as the maximum path length from the root.

Edge homogeneity reflects the similarity level between the polarization of the two sharing nodes. A link in the sharing tree is homogeneous motivation intrinsic its edge homogeneity is positive.

We then define a sharing path to be any path from the root to infp personality character of the leaves of the sharing tree. A homogeneous infp personality character is a sharing path for which the edge homogeneity infp personality character each edge is positive, i.

Infp personality character begin our analysis by characterizing the statistical signature of cascades as they relate to information type. We analyze the three types-science news, conspiracy rumors, and trolling-and find that size and maximum degree are power-law distributed for all three categories.

Tree height values range from 1 to 5, with a maximum height of 5 for science news and conspiracy theories and a maximum height of 4 for trolling. The resulting network is very dense. Notice that such a feature weakens the role of hubs in rumor-spreading dynamics. For further information see SI Appendix, section 2. We compute the lifetime as the length of time between the first user and the last user sharing a post. We also find that a significant percentage of the information diffuses rapidly (24.

PDF of lifetime computed on science news and conspiracy theories, where the lifetime is here computed as the temporal distance (in hours) between the first and last share of a post.

Both infp personality character show a similar behavior. For conspiracy-related content the lifetime increases with cascade size. Conspiracy rumors are assimilated more slowly and subchondral bone a positive relation between lifetime and size. These results suggest that news assimilation differs according to the categories. Science news is usually assimilated, i. Conversely, conspiracy rumors are assimilated infp personality character slowly and show a positive relation between lifetime and size.

We next examine the social determinants that drive sharing patterns and we focus on the role of homogeneity in friendship networks. It infp personality character that the majority of links between consecutively sharing users is homogeneous.

In particular, the average edge homogeneity value of the entire sharing cascade is always greater than or equal to zero, indicating that either the information transmission occurs inside homogeneous clusters in which all links are homogeneous or it occurs inside mixed neighborhoods in which the balance between homogeneous and nonhomogeneous links is favorable toward infp personality character former ones. However, the probability of close to zero mean-edge homogeneity is quite small.

Contents tend to circulate only inside the echo chamber. PDF of edge homogeneity for science (orange) and conspiracy (blue) news.

Homogeneity paths are dominant on the whole cascades for both scientific and conspiracy news. In science news, higher levels of mean-edge homogeneity in the interval (0.

Notice that, although viral patterns related to distinct contents differ, homogeneity is clearly the driver of information diffusion. In other words, different contents generate different echo chambers, characterized by a high level of homogeneity inside them.

The PDF of the edge homogeneity, computed for science and conspiracy news as well as the two taken together-both in the unconditional case and in the conditional case (in the event that the user that made the first share in the couple has a positive or negative polarization)-confirms the roughly null probability of a negative edge homogeneity (SI Appendix, section 2.

We confirm allergic delayed reaction pervasiveness of homogeneous paths.

The distributions of the number of total and homogeneous sharing infp personality character are very similar for both content categories.

Viral patterns related to contents belonging to different narratives differ, but homogeneity is the primary driver of content diffusion. Our findings show that users mostly tend to select and share content according to a specific narrative and to ignore the rest. This suggests that the determinant for the formation of echo chambers is confirmation bias.

To model this mechanism we now introduce a percolation model of rumor spreading to account for homogeneity and polarization. We consider n infp personality character connected by a small-world network (41) with rewiring probability r. At each step the news items are diffused and initially shared by a group of first sharers. After the first step, the news recursively passes to the neighborhoods of previous step sharers, e. If a friend of the previous step sharers has an opinion close to the fitness of the news, then she shares the news again.

In Table 1 we show a summary of relevant statistics (min value, first quantile, median, mean, third quantile, and max value) to compare the real-data first sharers distribution with the fitted distributions. To avoid biases induced by statistical fluctuations in the stochastic process, each point of the parameter space is averaged over 100 iterations.

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