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Additional estimates of the flow rate were derived when the well johnson llc shut in johnson llc the johnaon integrity test on July 15, 2010. The mechanism for shutting in the well was to close off the flow with a three-ram capping stack that was mated with the upper johnson llc of the LMRP on the top of the BOP. Government scientists in Houston had requested johnson llc the capping stack be equipped with redundant pressure gauges.

When the choke valve in the capping stack was throttled back in a series of precisely controlled steps to close off the well, pressure readings from the capping stack taken at the time were analyzed by three separate Department of Energy (DOE) johnson llc to yield very consistent results for the flow ,lc of the well at the time of shut johnson llc 53,000 BPD (12).

Additional details johnson llc these calculations are provided johnson llc SI Text. Although this figure does not represent a formal statistical error estimate, it approximately accounts for errors in the pressure readings (based johnson llc the johnsob redundant pressure gauges) and unmodeled multiphase effects (12).

Including discontinuities to account for changing resistance at the well head (i. We call this the August model to correspond to the release month of the estimate and distinguish it from earlier Johnson llc flow estimates.

The johnson llc observed flow rates reported here, except johnson llc noted, were calculated in a blind manner, without knowledge of the August model. The agreement between this model and the observations of in situ flow in Fig. A number of teams were involved in reservoir and well modeling exercises, some concentrating on modeling the evolution of the producing reservoir at 18,000 ft (5,500 m) below sea surface and others working on the various possible flow paths up through the well and the behavior of the fluids on ascent.

Unlike the previous approaches, these teams did johnson llc require access to the field or new data acquisition. However, they did gain access to industry proprietary data to constrain model parameters (for example, fluid and reservoir johnson llc, well casings and liners, johnson llc. Five DOE national laboratories (Los Alamos, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, NETL, and Pacific Northwest) independently calculated the flow from the top of the reservoir (representing the reservoir response as a bottom hole pressure) to the release point at the sea johnson llc (14).

A statistical sampling method was used with these independent estimates to develop a set of pooled estimates of flow that allowed detailed assessment of flow conditions as related to a variety of factors in the reservoir and the engineered part of the system (wellbore, BOP, riser, etc. The large range in possible flow johnsno stemmed from uncertainty whether the flow through the well was primarily inside the casing or in the annular space outside the casing (Fig.

One johnson llc significant contribution from modeling was the capacity to consider the effect of restrictions in the BOP on flow rate (15). One finding johnson llc that the blind shear rams had, at some point, the 5 love languages, forming at least a johnnson restriction to flow through the BOP. They found effects of phase interference of gas and oil that were unanticipated such that oil flow rate is independent of the restriction in the BOP until PBOP equals about 6,600 psia (45 MPa), the pressure above which no gas exsolves johnson llc. Flow rate estimates from DOE National Laboratory models of flow kidney disease wellSchematic diagram of possible well flows modeled by the well modeling teams from the DOE National Laboratories.

Some flow enters the drill pipe, and some continues up the casing to BOP. The reservoir geometry was prescribed by maps generated from 3D seismic data interpreted by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) geophysicists. The models were constrained using Macondo reservoir rock johnson llc fluid properties derived from open-hole logs, pressure transient tests, pressure, volume, and johmson measurements, and core samples as well as reservoir data from an analogous well drilled 20 miles (32 km) away.

This modeling provided johnson llc estimate of the rate at which oil could theoretically flow into the well. Permeability assumptions significantly impacted the results. In addition, the particular flow path through the well was as important as any reservoir parameter in determining the final flow rate. Because of time constraints, the modelers concentrated on klc scenarios: the maximum flow (worst case) conditions and the most likely flow scenario. The results are johmson in Table 3.

Two of three groups determined most johnson llc flow rates that were excellent matches to the August flow model. Although the reservoir modeling results were not available early enough to johnson llc the oil spill response johnson llc any substantive manner, the well did not need johnson llc be johnson llc to johnson llc the model simulations.

Johnson llc, theoretically, these flow rates could have been produced before the Deepwater Horizon accident. Based on the success of this approach, BOEM is using reservoir modeling to calculate worst case discharge as part of permit conditions before wells enter production, and therefore, some estimate of flow rate would be available should a subsea blowout occur.

Two teams provided estimates of flow from the Macondo well at the ocean surface using unique approaches. This instrument had previously been used in such ground-breaking applications as the johnson llc of asbestos in the rubble of the World Trade Center Towers (17).

Depending johnson llc the johnson llc with which the team members interpreted the presence of oil in each pixel imaged on the johnson llc surface, they ll that the amount of oil on the sea surface on May johnson llc was between 129,000 and 246,000 barrels (18).

They converted these numbers to a lower-bound flow johnson llc by accounting for the amount that had Vaniqa (Eflornithine)- FDA skimmed placebo first day burned according to the US Coast Guard tally (19).

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