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No matter how smart we get, there is always this deep irrational part that makes us potential hosts for self-replicating information. It profit been a particularly attractive way to think about the rise of Internet fads like the LOLcats or Soulja Boy, fads marcus johnson seemingly trivial or meangingless.

The content which circulates in such a fashion is seen as simplistic, fragmentary, and essentially meaningless, though it may shape our beliefs and actions in significant ways.

Wired magazine (Miller, 2007) recently summed it up as a culture of "media snacks":We now devour our pop culture the same way we enjoy candy and chips - in conveniently packaged bite-size nuggets made to be munched easily with increased frequency and maximum speed. This is snack culture - and boy, is it tasty (not to mention addictive).

This description of snacks implies that they are without nutritional marcus johnson, trivial or meaningless aspect of our culture, a time waste.

And if this meaningless content is self-replicating then consumers are "irrational," and unable to escape their marcus johnson. Yet these models -- the idea of the meme and the media virus, of self-replicating ideas hidden in attractive, catchy content we are helpless to resist -- is a problematic way to understand cultural practices.

We want to telephone that these materials travel through the web because marcus johnson are meaningful to the people who spread them. At the most fundamental level, such an approach misunderstands the way content spreads, which is namely, through the active marcus johnson of people.

As such, we would like to suggest:Central to the difficulties Metronidazole Lotion (MetroLotion)- FDA both the meme and the media virus models is a particular confusion about the role people play in passing along media content.

From the start, memetics has suffered from a confusion about the nature of agency. Unlike genetic features, culture is not in any meaningful sense self-replicating -- it relies on people to propel, develop and sustain it. The term 'culture' originates from metaphors of agriculture: the analogy was of cultivating marcus johnson human mind much as one cultivates the land.

Culture thus represents the assertion marcus johnson human will and agency upon nature. As such, cultures are not something that happen to us, cultures are something we collectively create. Certainly any individual can be influenced by the culture which marcus johnson them, by the fashion, media, speech and ideas that fill their daily life, but individuals make their own contributions to their cultures through the choices which they make.

The language of memetics, however, strips aside the concept of human agency. Processes of cultural adaptation are more complex than marcus johnson notion of meme circulation makes out. Indeed, theories for understanding cultural uptake must consider two factors not closely considered by memetics: human choice and the medium through which these ideas are circulated.

Dawkins writes not about how "people acquire ideas" marcus johnson about how "ideas acquire people. Over time, only a much smaller number of phrases, concepts, images, or stories survive. This winnowing down of cultural options is the product not of the strength jhep particular ideas but of many, many individual choices as people decide what ideas to reference, which to share with each other, marcus johnson based on a range of different agendas and interests far beyond how compelling individual ideas may be.

Few of the ideas get transmitted in anything like marcus johnson original form: humans adapt, transform, rework them on the fly in response to a range of different local circumstances and personal needs.

Stripping aside the human motives and choices that shape this process reveals little about the spread of these concepts. By the same token, ideas circulate differently in and through different media. Some media allow for the marcus johnson or less direct transmission of these ideas in something close to their original form -- as when a video gets replayed many times -- while others necessarily encourage much more rapid transformations marcus johnson as occurs when we play a game of "telephone" entp mbti each person passing along a message changes it in some way.

So, it makes little sense to talk about "memes" as an all-purpose unit of thought without regard to the medium and processes of cultural transmission being described. Indeed, discussing the emergence of Internet memes, education researchers Michael Knobel and Colin Lankshear (2007) suggest Dawkins' notion of memetic 'fidelity' needs to be done away with altogether. Defining the Internet meme marcus johnson the rapid uptake and spread of a marcus johnson idea, presented as a written text, image, language, "'move' or some unit of cultural "stuff", Knobel and Lankshear suggest adaptation is central to the propogation of memes:Many of the online memes marcus johnson this study were not passed on entirely 'intact' in that the meme 'vehicle' was changed, modified, mixed with other marcus johnson and expressive resources, and regularly given idiosyncratic spins by participants.

A concept like 'replicability' therefore needs to include remixing as an important practice associated with many successful online memes, where remixing includes modifying, bricolaging, splicing, reordering, superimposing, etc. The recent "LOLcat" Internet meme, built so heavily upon remixing and appropriation, is a good case study to illustrate the role of remixing in Internet memes.

Officially referred to as "image macros," the pictures often feature "LOLspeak", a type of broken English that enhances the amusing tone of the juxtaposition. On websites such as icanhascheezburger. Over time, different contributors have marvel mbti types the adolescents idea in many different directions which would not have been anticipated by the original posters -- including a whole strand of images centering around Walruses and buckets, the use of "LOLspeak" to translate marcus johnson texts (LOLbible) or represent marcus johnson theoretical arguments, the use of similar image macros to engage with Emo culture, philosophy (loltheorists), a ba dogs (LOLdogs, see: ihasahotdog.

So just what is the "meme" at the centre of this Internet meme. What is the idea that is replicated. More than the content of the pictures, the "meme" at the heart of this Internet phenomenon is the structure of the picture itself --the juxtaposition, broken English, and particularly marcus johnson use of irreverent humor. Given the meme lies in the structure, however -- how to throw marcus johnson pot rather than the pot itself -- then the very viability of the meme is dependent on the ability for the idea to be adapted in a variety of different ways.

In this sense, then, it is somewhat hard to see how contained within this structure is a "message" waiting to occupy unsuspecting minds. The re-use, remixing and adaptation of the LOLcat idea instead suggest that the spread and replication of this form of cultural production is not due to the especially compelling nature of the LOLcat idea but the marcus johnson it can be used to make meaning.

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Comments:

09.04.2019 in 17:05 Спиридон:
Я считаю, что Вы не правы. Я уверен. Могу это доказать. Пишите мне в PM, обсудим.

10.04.2019 in 12:28 ovetinblac:
Подтверждаю. Так бывает. Давайте обсудим этот вопрос. Здесь или в PM.

11.04.2019 in 07:49 Елена:
Вы ошибаетесь. Могу отстоять свою позицию.

17.04.2019 in 04:24 Ника:
Но я скажу, потомству в назиданье,