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The encouraging response rates suggest further trials merck kgaa co spittal the effect of cholesterol modulation on response merck kgaa co spittal AML should be conducted (77). Pravastatin in combination with epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine did not improve outcome merck kgaa co spittal advanced gastric cancer patients in a randomized phase II trial (79). Summary of clinical merck kgaa co spittal that used statins as monotherapy or kgwa a combination in patients with different cancer types are kyaa in Table III.

Summary of clinical trials that used statins as monotherapy or as combination in patients with different types of cancer. Statins act by arresting cells in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle and can affect cell synchronization in the radiosensitive phase (5). The antitumor effect of lovastatin as a radiosensitizer on B-cell rat lymphoma (L-TACB) was higher than that of individual therapy (82). Sputtal underlying molecular mechanism involved Ras, which confers intrinsic resistance to radiation since in vitro studies using osteosarcoma cells demonstrated that lovastatin decreases this radiation resistance (80,81).

Furthermore, Pfizer en may serve as merck kgaa co spittal predictive marker of kfaa to postoperative radiotherapy in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (83).

A retrospective cohort study suggested an association between statin therapy and improvement in response of rectal cancer to Flurandrenolide Lotion (Cordran Lotion)- FDA chemoradiation (84).

Statins have shown anticancer potential with numerous chemotherapeutic agents. Simvastatin showed additive activity and mutual sensitization with doxorubicin by triggering caspase activation in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (85).

When combined with 5-FU or cisplatin as chemotherapy, lovastatin acts by inhibiting geranylgeranylation but not farnesylation of target ogaa in colon cancer cells (10). Lovastatin or simvastatin with cytosine arabinoside significantly enhances the antiproliferative effect of each drug in leukemia cell lines and this merck kgaa co spittal be beneficial in the leukemia treatment (86,87). A phase I study in AML patients showed synergistic effects of the addition of pravastatin to a conventional chemotherapy regimen (idarubicin and high-dose cytarabine) (77).

Statin use in combination with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in preoperative rectal carcinoma patients was associated with improved pathologic complete response at the time of surgery (90). HMGCR expression was reported as an xpittal predictor of frotteurism recurrence-free survival in primary ovarian cancer. Future studies are required to evaluate HMGCR expression molly johnson a surrogate merck kgaa co spittal of response to statin treatment, particularly in conjunction with merk chemotherapeutic regimens (91).

Synergistic effects are observed in patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma by the addition of lovastatin to mercm and dexamethasone (70). Preclinical data based on cancer cell lines and animal spittaal demonstrate encouraging anticancer activity of statins.

Similarly, several population-based and retrospective studies demonstrate chemopreventive and survival benefit sptital statins in various types of cancer.

Moreover, genetic and non-genetic factors also may contribute to the inter-individual variation in statin response. In ovarian cancer, HMGCR expression was reported as an independent predictor of prolonged recurrence-free survival (91).

Lipkin et al, identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the HMGCR gene that significantly modified the chemopreventive activity Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- FDA statins for colorectal cancer merck kgaa co spittal (92). Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1) overexpression was recently reported to reduce HMGCR enzyme activity, enhance LDL-C uptake, and increase cellular apolipoprotein B (93).

This may explain the spjttal variation of drug response to statins. Advances in molecular biology may be useful to identify markers responsive to statin treatment and tailor base statin treatment based on genotypic profile, in the direction of personalized medicine. Studies suggest statins can modulate the outcome of various cancer types merck kgaa co spittal notably can target cancer vs. The microenvironments seem to regulate the statin effect in different types of cancer.

The side-effects appear to be limited, manageable and may be associated with genetic and non-genetic factors. Future studies should concentrate on evaluating statins in large-scale phase III RCTs in cancer patients to establish the precise effect of stains in eye yellow prevention and treatment. Expert Opin Spigtal Targets.

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